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Other published comparisons of stiffness (or strength) show increases up to 600% when cohesionless soils, such as gravels, are compacted to high densities (Howard when the gravel density goes from uncompacted to 95 percent compaction.In effect, this doubles the allowable backfill height over the pipe (ACPA 2013).The dumped in-place density will be close to the minimum density laboratory value since the soil is placed loosely in both cases.Several sources have compiled data on the laboratory minimum density of a soil and the laboratory maximum density of the same soil.

A new buried pipeline is an investment in our future.The dumped density can even be compared to the laboratory minimum density.Yes, there is a test to measure the minimum density: ASTM D 4254 Test Methods for Minimum Index Density of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density.modulus of deformation, constrained modulus) can easily double when the density increases from 85 to 95 percent compaction (Gemperline and Gemperline 2011).This increased soil stiffness reduces the settlement beneath a loaded structure, reduces the deflection of buried flexible pipe, and increases the support of haunch embedment for rigid pipe.

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Owners, engineers, contractors and inspectors have been known to use this expression.

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